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[Mission 2024] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 12 October 2023 … – Insights IAS

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NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same
 
Topic: geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
1. What are the potential long-term consequences of temporary global warming exceeding 2°C on ocean ecosystems and marine life, and why is this a matter of concern for future generations? (250 words)
Difficulty level: Moderate
Reference: Down to Earth
Why the question:
The referenced article discusses the enduring impacts of global warming on oceans, highlighting the importance of understanding these consequences.
Key Demand of the question:
To write about the potential long-term effects of temporary global warming surpassing 2°C on marine ecosystems and species
Structure of the answer:
Introduction: 
Begin by giving context.
Body:
First, write about how elevated temperatures can disrupt ocean ecosystems by impacting coral reefs, marine biodiversity, and food chains. Describe the acidification of seawater and its effects on marine life, including shellfish and corals.
Next, write about even temporary warming can have long-lasting consequences, and these changes may persist for centuries. Highlight the importance of understanding the cumulative effects on future generations.
Next, measures that are needed to reverse the above.
Conclusion:
Conclude by writing a way forward.
Introduction
There is growing consensus that our planet is likely to pass the 1.5°C warming threshold. Research even suggests global warming will temporarily exceed the 2°C threshold, if atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) peaks at levels beyond what was anticipated.
Exceeding our emissions targets is known as a climate overshoot. It may lead to changes that won’t be reversible in our lifetime. These changes include sea-level rise, less functional ecosystems, higher risks of species extinction, and glacier and permafrost loss. We are already seeing many of these changes.
Body
Potential long-term consequences of temperature exceeding 2°C
Irreversible long term impact
 
 
Conclusion
Overall, the long-term consequences of temporary global warming exceeding 2°C on ocean ecosystems and marine life are a matter of concern for future generations because they have far-reaching ecological, economic, and social implications. Addressing climate change and its impacts on the oceans is crucial for the well-being and sustainability of both marine and human communities.
 
 
 
Topic: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
2. Money bills are contentious due to their implications for the power balance between the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. Compare and contrast money bills with financial bills. (250 words)
Difficulty level: Moderate
Reference: The Hindu
Why the question:
The article discusses the issue of money bills in the Indian Parliament and the legal interpretation surrounding them.
Key Demand of the question:
To differentiate between a money bill and a financial Bill along with relevant constitutional provisions and contentious issue with money bill.
Directive word: 
Compare and contrast – provide for a detailed comparison of the two types, their features that are similar as well as different. One must provide for detailed assessment of the two.
Structure of the answer:
Introduction: 
Given context of Articles 110 and 117 of the Indian Constitution.
Body:
Compare and contrast the money bills and financial bills on the following – while both money bills and financial bills deal with financial matters, lies in their origination, the requirement of the President’s recommendation, the process of passage, the role of the Rajya Sabha, and the Speaker’s certification etc. Give examples to substantiate.
Next, throw light on the present controversy related to money bill and how often used as a tool for bypassing the Rajya Sabha, which can only make recommendations on such bills.
Conclusion:
Conclude by giving your balanced opinion.
Introduction
A Finance Bill is a bill that deals with the country’s finances, as the name implies – it could be about taxes, government spending, government borrowings, revenues, and so on. Any bill related to revenue or expenditure is a Financial BillMoney Bill is a specific type of Finance Bill that deals only with matters specified under Article 110(1) and deals with taxes, borrowing, expenditure, etc. It can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha and must be certified by the Speaker.
Recently, Minister for Parliamentary Affairs clarified that The Digital Personal Data Protection (DPDP) Bill is a normal Bill and not a Money Bill.
Body
Comparison of Money Bills and Financial Bills:
Conclusion
The primary distinction between a money bill and a finance bill is that a money bill may only be introduced in the lower house of parliament, namely the Lok Sabha, but a finance bill can be introduced in either of the two chambers. Although a money bill is a form of finance bill, most people use the phrases interchangeably; yet, they differ in terms of content.
 
Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.
3. The UN Security Council (UNSC) is criticized for its lack of representation of the contemporary global order, and there is a persistent call for reform to make it more inclusive and representative. Comment. (250 words)
Difficulty level: Moderate
Reference: The Hindu
Why the question:
The article discusses the long-standing issue of reforming the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and presents it as a recurring theme in international diplomacy.
Key Demand of the question:
To write about key issues in UNSC, various reform proposals, and their potential implications.
Directive word:
Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.
Structure of the answer:
Introduction: 
Start by giving a brief context of UNSC.
Body:
First, write about the primary issues that prompt discussions about UNSC reform, including the Council’s composition and the veto power of its permanent members. Discuss the need for increased representation of African, Asian, and Latin American countries.
Next, write about the various limitations that hinder the above. Challenges and obstacles that have hindered UNSC reform efforts, including differing national interests and concerns about dilution of power.
Conclusion:
Conclude by writing a way forward to overcome the above limitations.
Introduction
India has criticised the slow pace of UN Security Council reform process and opaque methodologies, non-attribution of assertions and obfuscation of references by the member states which are blocking the early reform of the UN. What is ironical is, the permanent member of Security Council, Russia itself has waged a war on Ukraine while it is being given the responsibility to maintain world peace.
Body
India and UNSC
Need for UNSC reforms
Way forward
Value Addition
India’s stature to get permanent membership
 
 
 
Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.
4. Examine the effect of inflation on various macroeconomic parameters. Propose actions that can be implemented to maintain inflation rates within acceptable boundaries. (250 words)
Difficulty level: Easy
Reference: Insights on India
Why the question:
The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.
Key Demand of the question:
To write about inflation, its impact and measures needed to keep it under control.
Directive word:
Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.
Structure of the answer:
Introduction: 
Begin by defining inflation.
Body:
First, write about the impact of inflation on various macroeconomic parameters – purchasing power, growth, cost of living, availability of credit and exchange rates etc.
Next, write about the measures that are taken to keep inflation under tolerable limits – the monetary policy measures, fiscal policy measures and price control measures.
Conclusion:
Conclude by writing a way forward.
Introduction
Inflation refers to the rise in the prices of most goods and services of daily or common use, such as food, clothing, housing, recreation, transport, consumer staples, etc. Inflation measures the average price change in a basket of commodities and services over time. The opposite and rare fall in the price index of this basket of items is called ‘deflation’. Inflation is indicative of the decrease in the purchasing power of a unit of a country’s currency. This is measured in percentage.
Body
Impact of Inflation on various macroeconomic parameters
Factors for the high rate of inflation in the Indian economy
Measures to keep the inflation under control
Conclusion
With the rise in inflation amidst a second wave, the balancing acumen of the MPC will now be sorely tested. Factors like rising commodity prices, supply chain disruptions are expected to raise overall domestic inflation. Economists have pointed at India’s K-shaped recovery where a few have benefitted while others have fallen sharply behind. Big companies have benefitted and increased market share, revenues and profits sharply. They have also taken advantage of low interest rates to decrease the cost of their borrowings. Small and medium companies, struggling with falling revenues and cash flows, have not been able to take advantage of the rates. Hence inflation must also be controlled while growth is focussed upon.
 
Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.
5. Discuss the causes behind high rate of unemployment in India in the recent past. Suggest measures to ensure adequate job creation in the Indian economy. (250 words)
Difficulty level: Moderate
Reference: Insights on India
Why the question:
The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2024 Secure timetable.
Key Demand of the question:
To write about steps that are needed to overcome unemployment in the country.
Directive word:
Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.
Structure of the answer:
Introduction: 
Begin by giving the context regarding the unemployment in India.
Body:
Firstly, write about the important causes that led to the increasing the levels of unemployment – economic slowdowns, education and skills gaps, dominance of the informal sector, disparities in labor force participation, urban-rural imbalances etc.
Next, write about the steps that must be taken to reduce the employment levels in the economy – Labour-intensive measures, Accelerating Investment, diversification of agriculture, decentralised development and upskilling etc.
Conclusion:
Conclude with a way forward.
Introduction
The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) data recently reported a decline in India’s unemployment rate in urban areas to 6.6% during April-June 2023 against 7.6% a year ago period. The 19th Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) noted that the unemployment rate (UR) for persons aged 15 years and above in Urban areas was 7.6% in April-June 2022. It was 6.8% in January-March 2023, 7.2% in July-September 2022 as well as October-December 2022.
In a jobless growth economy, unemployment remains stubbornly high even as the economy grows. This tends to happen when a relatively large number of people have lost their jobs, and the ensuing recovery is insufficient to absorb the unemployed, under-employed, and those first entering the workforce. Jobless growth of the Indian economy is a “5C” problem: a Complicated Condition Created by Combinations of Causes.
Body
 Causes of unemployment in India
Public sector employment as a remedy: Critical analysis
Measure needed and way forward
 Conclusion
India is on the right side of demographic transition that provides golden opportunity for its rapid socio-economic development, if policymakers align the developmental policies with this demographic shift.
To reap the demographic dividend, proper investment in human capital is needed by focussing on education, skill development and healthcare facilities.
Value-addition
Steps taken by government in recent times
 
Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment
6. The Goods and Services Tax (GST) that was introduced to simplify and streamline taxation, has been facing various challenges and complexities, hindering its effectiveness. Critically examine. (250 words)
Difficulty level: Tough
Reference: The HinduInsights on India
Why the question:
The editorial discusses the need for reforms in the Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime in India
Key Demand of the question:
To write about various successes and limitations of GST and reforms that are needed in it.
Directive word: 
Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.
Structure of the answer:
Introduction: 
Begin by aims and objectives behind the launch of GST.
Body:
First, write about the achievements of GST – simplified tax structure, an increase in the tax base, and a reduction in tax evasion. Substantiate with examples, facts or statistics.
Next, write about the shortcomings of GST – high tax rates, compliance burden, and complexities in the filing process have been faced. Substantiate with examples, facts or statistics.
Next, suggest reforms in GST.
Conclusion:
Conclude with a way forward.
Introduction
The Goods and Services Tax (GST) is one indirect tax for the whole nation, which will make India one unified common market. GST is a single tax on the supply of goods and services, right from the manufacturer to the consumer. Credits of input taxes paid at each stage will be available in the subsequent stage of value addition, which makes GST essentially a tax only on value addition at each stage. The final consumer will thus bear only the GST charged by the last dealer in the supply chain, with set-off benefits at all the previous stages.
GST is an indirect tax system which was rolled out on 1st July 2017 The Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) has pointed out lacunae in the GST regime, saying that system-validated input tax credit through invoice matching is not in place and a non-intrusive e-tax system still remains elusive.
Body
Performance of the GST regime
Various issues with respect to goods and services tax (GST) regime
Way Forward
Conclusion
While the GST’s journey has given its stakeholders some causes to celebrate, it has also given moments of worry. But then, no transformation of the scale and complexity can be achieved without its share of hiccups and challenges. The process of evolution will take a few years more for the mammoth structural change to stabilize. The four-year journey of GST has been a roller-coaster ride for all stakeholders with equitable share of hits, misses and expectations. A work-in-progress in its transformational journey, GST suffers from several shortcomings which need to be resolved quickly, but its journey to ‘Good & Simple Tax’ is still quite long.
 
 
 
Topic: Citizen’s Charters
7. List the inadequacies of citizen charters in India and propose ways to enhance their effectiveness to enhance the delivery of public services. (150 Words)
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Why the question:
The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.
Structure of the answer:
Introduction:
Begin by defining citizen charter.
Body:
First, mention the shortcoming of citizen charters – not formulated through a consultative process, lack of awareness, absence of grievance redressal etc.
Next, suggest steps to overcome the above shortcomings.
Conclusion:
Conclude by stressing on need to make the charters effective to provide high quality public service delivery.
Introduction
Citizens’ Charter represents the commitment of the Organisation towards standard, quality and time frame of service delivery, grievance redress mechanism, transparency and accountability. The concept of Citizens Charter enshrines the trust between the service provider and its users.
 Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances in Government of India (DARPG) initiated the task of coordinating, formulating and operationalising Citizen’s Charters.
Body
The basic objective of the Citizens Charter is to empower the citizen in relation to public service delivery.

 
Importance of Citizen’s charter in the Governance of developing nation like India:
Problems faced in implementation of Citizen’s charter:
Way forward:
Conclusion
Citizen’s Charter is playing a prominent part in ensuring “minimum government & maximum governance”, changing the nature of charters from non-justiciable to justiciable & adopting penalty measures that will make it more efficient & citizen friendly. The Sevottam model proposed by 2nd Administrative Reforms Commission for public Service Delivery can be regarded as a standard model for providing services in citizen centric governance.
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